Colour blindness ielts reading answers

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Colour blindness ielts reading answers

This website is designed for non-native English speakers who need to study in America, Australia and Europe or Work where English is the language of communication. Contact Sitemap Downloads. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings.

Write the correct number i-viii in boxes on your answer sheet. There are more headings than sections, so you will not use them all.

The term itself is misleading, since it is extremely rare for anyone to have a complete lack of color perception. By look ing into the myths related to color blindness, one can learn many facts about the structure and genetics o the human eye. It is a myth that colorblind people see the world as if it were a black and white movie. There are very few cases of complete colorblindness.

Those who have a complete lack of color perception are referred to as monochromatics, and usually have a serious problem with their overall vision as well as an inability to see colors. The fact is that in most cases of colorblindness, there are only certain shades that a person cannot distinguish between.

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These people are said to be dichromatic. They may not be able to tell the difference between red and green, or orange and yellow. A person with normal color vision has what is called trichromatic vision. The difference between the three levels of color perception have to do with the cones in the human eye. A normal human eye has three cones located inside the retina: the red cone, the green cone, and the yellow cone.

Each cone contains a specific pigment whose function is to absorb the light of these colors and the combinations of them. People with trichromatic vision have all three cones in working order. When one of the three cones does not function properly, dichromatic vision occurs. This is also a myth, though it is not completely untrue. While there may be some truth to the idea that more men have trouble matching their clothing than women, the reason that color vision deficiency is predominant in males has nothing to do with fashion.

The fact is that the gene for color blindness is located on the X chromosome, which men only have one of.

Females have two X chromosomes, and if one carries the defective gene, the other one naturally compensates. Therefore, the only way for a female to inherit colorblindness is for both of her X chromosomes to carry the defective gene. This is why the incidence of color deficiency is sometimes more prevalent in extremely small societies that have a limited gene pool.

A baby's cones do not begin to differentiate between many different colors until he is approximately four months old. This is why many of the modern toys for very young babies consist of black and white patterns or primary colors, rather than traditional soft pastels.

However, some current research points to the importance of developing an infant's color visual system. InJapanese researcher Yoichi Sugita of the Neuroscience Research Institute performed an experiment that would suggest that color vision deficiency isn't entirely genetic.

In his experiment, he subjected a group of baby monkeys to monochromatic lighting for one year. He later compared their vision to normal monkey who had experienced the colorful world outdoors. It was found that the test monkeys were unable to perform the color-matching tasks that the normal monkeys could. Nevertheless, most cases of colorblindness are attributed to genetic factors that are present at birth.

Children are taught from a very young age that an apple is red. Naming colors allows children to associate a certain shade with a certain name, regardless of a color vision deficiency. Someone who never takes a color test can go through life thinking that what they see as red is called green.

Children are generally tested for colorblindness at about four years of age. The Ishihara Test is the most common, though it is highly criticized' because it requires that children have the ability to recognize numerals.In this disorder, there may be confusion in distinguishing certain hues from one another.

For example, certain reds, browns, olives and golds may be confused. However, pure red would be easily distinguished from pure green, in this particular type of color blindness. There are many varieties and degrees of color blindness, and this color vision test only pertains to the most common type, the inherited red - green type of color blindness.

This test may not be accurate due to the wide variety in the ways colors are displayed on different monitors and with different internet browsers. Certainly, it would be doubtful that a printer would display the colors correctly, so it is not recommended to print the test to take it.

An individual's eye care provider can test color vision most accurately. Note: Missing a few of the numbers may be normal, but missing the majority of the numbers may indicate a color vision abnormality. Again, this test is most specific for the commonly inherited red-green type of color blindness.

Everyone should be able to see a circle, star, and square in the diagram below regardless of their color vision. Colorblind individuals should see the yellow square in the diagram below. Color normal individuals should see the yellow square and a "faint" brown circle. Colorblind individuals should see the yellow circle in the diagram below.

Color normal individuals should see the yellow square and a "faint" brown square. Colorblind individuals should see nothing.

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Color normal individuals should see a "faint" brown boat in the diagram below. Read this important information before proceeding further: These sections are not intended to replace the professional examination and diagnosis by a physician or eye care provider, and they are presented here purely for informational purposes.

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The availability of these vision tests should not be taken as a recommendation to self-diagnose or self-treat a condition. Due to the fact there are so many different monitor screens displaying different colors, the accuracy of this "on-line" version of " Color Vision Testing Made Easy " is limited.

This webpage is for "screening" purposes only, not a "diagnosis". For a diagnosis, you should see your vision care professional and be given the complete test using all 14 plates of " Color Vision Testing Made Easy " under controlled testing conditions and the proper lighting.There are many reasons why we are looking toward alternative energy sources.

Color Blind Test

Alternative, or renewable, energy sources show significant promise in helping to reduce the amount of toxins that are by-products of energy use. Not only do they protect against harmful by-products, but using alternative energy helps to preserve many of the natural resources that we currently use as sources of energy. To understand how alternative energy use can help preserve the delicate ecological balance of the planet, and help us conserve the non-renewable energy sources like fossil fuels, it is important to know what types of alternative energy are out there.

Alternative energy sources are resources that constantly replace and are usually less polluting. They are not the result of the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms.

colour blindness ielts reading answers

The use of renewable energy is contributing to our energy supply. Some alternative energy sources are biomass energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, solar power, wind power, fuel cells, ocean thermal energy conversion, tidal energy, and wave energy.

Biomass is renewable energy that is produced from organic matter. Biomass fuels include wood, forest and mill residues, animal waste, grains, agricultural crops, and aquatic plants. These materials are used as fuel to heat water for steam or processed into liquids and gases, which can be burned to do the same thing.

colour blindness ielts reading answers

With more use of biomass at lower production costs and better technology, the United States could generate as much as four-and-a-half times more biopower by It is estimated that biomass will have the largest increase among renewable energy sources, rising by 80 percent and reaching Geothermal energy uses heat from within the earth. Wells are drilled into geothermal reservoirs to bring the hot water or steam to the surface.

The steam then drives a turbine-generator to generate electricity in geothermal plants. In some places, this heat is used directly to heat homes and greenhouses or to provide process heat for businesses or industries. Reykjavik, Iceland, is heated by geothermal energy. Most geothermal resources are concentrated in the western part of the United States.

Geothermal heat pumps use shallow ground energy to heat and cool homes, and this technique can be employed almost anywhere. With technological improvements much more power could be generated from hydrothermal resources.

Hydroelectric hydropower energy employs the force of falling water to drive turbine-generators to produce electricity. Hydropower produces more electricity than any other alternative energy source. It has been estimated that hydroelectric power will decline from billion KW in the US in to billion KW in This decline is expected because most of the best sites for hydropower have already been developed and because of concerns about the adverse impact that large-scale hydroelectric facilities may have on the environment.

Solar energy is generated without a turbine or electromagnet. Special panels of photovoltaic cells capture light from the sun and convert it directly into electricity. The electricity is stored in a battery. Solar energy can also be used to directly heat water for domestic use solar thermal technology.

Wind energy can be used to produce electricity. As wind passes through the blades of a windmill, the blades spin. The shaft that is attached to the blades turns and powers a pump or turns a generator to produce electricity. Electricity is then stored in batteries.

The speed of the wind and the size of the blades determine how much energy can be produced. Wind energy is more efficient in windier parts of the country.

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Most wind power is produced from wind farms — large groups of turbines located in consistently windy locations. Wind, used as a fuel, is free and non-polluting and produces no emissions or chemical wastes. Wind-powered electricity is gaining in popularity. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity through a chemical reaction.Found a mistake? Let us know! Share this Practice Test. From a number of recent studies, it has become clear that blind people can appreciate the use of outlines and perspectives to describe the arrangement of objects and other surfaces in space.

But pictures are more than literal representations.

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This fact was drawn to my attention dramatically when a blind woman in one of my investigations decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel as it was spinning. To show this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle Fig. I was taken aback. Lines of motion, such as the one she used, are a very recent invention in the history of illustration. Indeed, as art scholar David Kunzle notes, Wilhelm Busch, a trend-setting nineteenth-century cartoonist, used virtually no motion lines in his popular figures until about When I asked several other blind study subjects to draw a spinning wheel, one particularly clever rendition appeared repeatedly: several subjects showed the wheel's spokes as curved lines.

When asked about these curves, they all described them as metaphorical ways of suggesting motion. Majority rule would argue that this device somehow indicated motion very well.

But was it a better indicator than, say, broken or wavy lines - or any other kind of line, for that matter? The answer was not clear. So I decided to test whether various lines of motion were apt ways of showing movement or if they were merely idiosyncratic marks.

Moreover, I wanted to discover whether there were differences in how the blind and the sighted interpreted lines of motion. To search out these answers, I created raised-line drawings of five different wheels, depicting spokes with lines that curved, bent, waved, dashed and extended beyond the perimeter of the wheel.

colour blindness ielts reading answers

I then asked eighteen blind volunteers to feel the wheels and assign one of the following motions to each wheel: wobbling, spinning fast, spinning steadily, jerking or braking. My control group consisted of eighteen sighted undergraduates from the University of Toronto.

All but one of the blind subjects assigned distinctive motions to each wheel. Most guessed that the curved spokes indicated that the wheel was spinning steadily; the wavy spokes, they thought, suggested that the wheel was wobbling; and the bent spokes were taken as a sign that the wheel was jerking. Subjects assumed that spokes extending beyond the wheel's perimeter signified that the wheel had its brakes on and that dashed spokes indicated the wheel was spinning quickly.

In addition, the favoured description for the sighted was the favoured description for the blind in every instance. What is more, the consensus among the sighted was barely higher than that among the blind.

Because motion devices are unfamiliar to the blind, the task I gave them involved some problem solving. Evidently, however, the blind not only figured out meanings for each line of motion, but as a group they generally came up with the same meaning at least as frequently as did sighted subjects. We have found that the blind understand other kinds of visual metaphors as well.Color Blind Test info: Around the world, approximately 1 in 12 men and 1 in women are affected by color blindness.

You can do it easily online using your computer. Simply look at the symbols below and enter the numbers that you can see. You will get an instant result that will help you know whether or not you are struggling with color blindness. How does the Color Blind Test work?

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This test, known as the Ishihara Test, makes numbers out of dots that are a different color than the dots surrounding them. Someone who is color blind sees all of these dots as the same color, whereas someone with normal vision can distinguish the different colors. Ishihara Test a type of Color Blind Test is a fast and simple way to determine whether or not you are struggling. Color Blind Test or the Ishihara test contains of a number of colored plates, known as Ishihara plates.

All of the plates contains a circle of dots appearing in random order of color and size. Most people will view the images differently mostly Arabic numbers. Those with certain types of color blindness will see different numbers from those not affected by color blindness.

A color code happens when there is some information in the color of items being analysed. These codes cannot be easily explained by those who have color blindness. This is the main reason as to why, color should not be the sole criteria to provide information. The ideal way to to avoid color coding or color differences is to use Good graphic design to give information. This not only helps the color blind people, but is also helpful to the normal vision people.

External info: Ishihara test Wikipedia. Look at the pictures below, and enter the numbers that you see in the corresponding boxes. Are you concerned about your results?

Did you struggle to see several of the numbers? Did you find yourself guessing instead of confidently entering the answers? Do you need to pass a color vision test for your job or licensing? If the test shows that you may be color blind, and you feel that color blindness is affecting your everyday life, then there is good news for you.

Color blindness treatment is available to help you see the full range of colors that other people see and can guarantee the passing of the Ishihara Color Plate Test! This system has helped thousands of people just like you overcome color blindness and the challenges it can cause. Whether you have known for a long time that you are color blind or just found out using this test, there is a solution.

Reach out to our team today to learn more about the ColorCorrection system and how it can help you see colors clearly again.

This online test can help determine if one may have a color vision deficiency. For a proper color vision evaluation please contact our office or your local eye care provider. Color Blind Test.You can score whole e. The IELTS scoring system is very unique composed of 9 bands, measured in consistent manner and is internationally acclaimed and understood.

The individual result from these four parts will produce an overall band score The total test time is 2 hours and 45 minutes. The Listening, Reading and Writing tests are done in one sitting. Generally, when you take any test or exam then there can be the possibility of getting passed or failed. But here in this case, you will not get failed but you may be disqualified to continue your higher education in choice of college or university. Questions The following reading passage has five sections A-E.

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Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes on your answer sheet. The term itself is misleading, since it is extremely rare for anyone to have a complete lack of color perception.

By look ing into the myths related to color blindness, one can learn many facts about the structure and genetics o the human eye. It is a myth that colorblind people see the world as if it were a black and white movie. There are very few cases of complete colorblindness. Those who have a complete lack of color perception are referred to as monochromatics, and usually have a serious problem with their overall vision as well as an inability to see colors. The fact is that in most cases of colorblindness, there are only certain shades that a person cannot distinguish between.

These people are said to be dichromatic. They may not be able to tell the difference between red and green, or orange and yellow. A person with normal color vision has what is called trichromatic vision. The difference between the three levels of color perception have to do with the cones in the human eye. A normal human eye has three cones located inside the retina: the red cone, the green cone, and the yellow cone. Each cone contains a specific pigment whose function is to absorb the light of these colors and the combinations of them.

People with trichromatic vision have all three cones in working order. When one of the three cones does not function properly, dichromatic vision occurs. Some people believe that only men can be colorblind. This is also a myth, though it is not completely untrue.

While there may be some truth to the idea that more men have trouble matching their clothing than women, the reason that color vision deficiency is predominant in males has nothing to do with fashion. The fact is that the gene for color blindness is located on the X chromosome, which men only have one of. Females have two X chromosomes, and if one carries the defective gene, the other one naturally compensates.

Therefore, the only way for a female to inherit colorblindness is for both of her X chromosomes to carry the defective gene.Found a mistake? Let us know! Share this Practice Test. Young children struggle with color concepts, and the reason for this may have something to do with how we use the words that describe them.

A In the course of the first few years of their lives, children who are brought up in English- speaking homes successfully master the use of hundreds of words. Words for objects, actions, emotions, and many other aspects of the physical world quickly become part of their infant repertoire. For some reason, however, when it comes to learning color words, the same children perform very badly. Yet it turns out they do this in much the same way as blind children.

If shown a blue cup and asked about its color, typical two-year-olds seem as likely to come up with "red" as "blue. To illustrate, the word "chair" has a meaning that applies to the somewhat varied set of entities in the world that people use for sitting on. Chairs have featuressuch as arms and legs and backs, that are combined to some degree in a systematic way; they turn up in a range of chairs of different shapes, sizes, and ages. It could be said that children learn to narrow down the set of cues that make up a chair and in this way they learn the concept associated with that word.

On the other hand, color words tend to be unique and not bound to other specific co-occurring features; there is nothing systematic about color words to help cue their meaning.

In the speech that adults direct at children, color adjectives occur pre-nominally "blue cup" around 70 percent of the time. This suggests that most of what children hear from adults will, in fact, be unhelpful in learning what color words refer to. C To explore this idea further, the research team recruited 41 English children aged between 23 and 29 months and carried out a three- phase experiment. It consisted of a pre-test, followed by training in the use of color words, and finally a post-test that was identical to the pre-test.

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The pre- and post-test materials comprised six objects that were novel to the children. There were three examples of each object in each of three colors—red, yellow, and blue. The objects were presented on trays, and in both tests, the children were asked to pick out objects in response to requests in which the color word was either a prenominal "Which is the red one?


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